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Abstracts Print E-mail
Aksenov, Alexei

Title: Kinetics of the mildly relativistic plasma and GRBs.

Abstract: We consider the photon-pair-proton plasma in the frame of Boltzmann equations. We take into account exact collisional integrals for all two-particles interactions. For corresponding tree-particles interactions we evaluate collisional integrals to equilibrium case due to different timescales in tree- and two-particles interactions and the non-degenerate gas. We consider the uniform and isotropic plasma. Arbitrary initial distribution functions evaluate to the thermal equilibrium state trough so called kinetic equilibrium state with one temperature and nonzero chemical potential. For the plasma density 0.1-10 MeV corresponding to GRB sources we have the evaluation timescale 10-11 s for all components. We also represent a new numerical method for solving Bolzmann equations generalizable to one-dimensional spherically symmetric case.

Baryshevsky, Vladimir

Title: Optical phenomena in high-energy physics

Abstract: De Broglie wavelength for a high-energy particle is much shorter than the distance between media atoms. Nevertheless, a variety of macroscopic quantum "quasioptical" phenomena appear when a high-energy particle passes though a matter. They are similar to Faraday effect (rotation of light polarization plane) and birefringence of light in anisotropic crystals. Study of these phenomena gives possibility to find the amplitude of elastic coherent forward scattering for the high-energy particle and to get information about interaction in light nuclei (deuterium, helium and so on) and investigate properties of nuclei and particles at high energies.

Cadez, Andrej

Title: Tidal effects in the vicinity of a black hole

Abstract: Material gobbled by a black hole follows trajectories with diminishing angular momentum. When the critical no return angular momentum is reached, possible exponential tides define the stage for a number of interesting high energy phenomena that we would like to discuss. The signature of these phenomena depend both on the mass of the black hole, as well as on the mass and constitution of the infalling material. We will show that low mass solid chunks of infalling material eventulally melt and can in principle produce phenomena similar to the observed Galactic flares. Related phenomena occuring in the vicinity of a stellar mass black hole can produce QPOs as well.

Chakrabarty, Sandip

Title: Evolution of pre-biotic molecules in collapsing interstellar clouds

Abstract: Discovery of amino acids in meteorites suggest that many of complex pre-biotic molecules could indeed be formed during the collapse of the interstellar clouds before the actual star formation took place. We carry out such study using complete grain and gas chemistry. We use rate equation method, master equation method as well as the Monte-Carlo method to show evolution of lighter molecules in the grain phase and subsequently desorb them to the gas phase and evolve them to produce more complex molecules. Our results generally match with observations for lighter molecules. However, for complex molecules the result is not so conclusive. We believe that this is due to our poor knowledge of the reaction pathways and the reaction cross-section for complex molecules. We also discuss the formation of DNA in this process.

Chechetkin, Valery

Title: Mechanisms of Supernova Explosions

Abstract: Physical mechanisms supernova explosions will be described. Results of numerical modeling will be shown. Mechanism s of explosions have different kind for SNI and SNII.

Einasto, Jaan

Title: The large scale structure of the Universe

Abstract: A review of the development of our present understanding of the structure of the Universe is given with special emphasis of the role of the Zeldovich school of cosmologists

Feranchuck, Ilya

Title: Parametric X-ray radiation in crystals

Abstract: Parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) is the specific form radiation that is generated because of the coherent interaction between the charge particle and the crystal. PXR theoretical prediction as well as the first experimental observation of this phenomena was made in Belarusian University. The current status of PXR theory, experimental analysis and applications is considered in the talk.

Fimin, Nikolaj

Title: Plasma dynamics in collisionless and shockless ultra-relativistic streaming cold electron-proton shell

Abstract: We consider a cold collisionless electron-proton plasma, moving in vacuum with a large bulk Lorentz factor. This system is analyzed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, which are numerically integrated using a 3-dimensional Eulerian code. The generation of stochastic electromagnetic fields is observed. The motion of electrons and protons randomizes in these stochastic fields, leading to a thermal-like spread in the distribution function of the electrons and protons. Both the electrons and protons and the electromagnetic field reach equipartition on a time scale L/c, where L is the characteristic size in the problem and c is the speed of light. We discuss the particle distributions in both coordinate and momentum space, as well as the structure of the electromagnetic fields which arise. The consequences of this phenomenon for astrophysical sources are quite general, including in particular gamma ray bursts.

Funes, Jose

Title: From Clavius and Secchi to the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, moments of the Specola Vaticana


Gorbatsievich, Alexander

Title: Equation of Motion of the Binary in the Neighborhood of the Supermassive Black Hole

Abstract: Using the method of Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann we have derived the equation of motion of the binary system in the field of super-massive Black Hole. Assuming that relative motion of the stars in this binary system is non-relativistic (the motion of the binary system as a whole relative to super-massive Black Hole can be relativistic or even ultra-relativistic)we have received that the binary star as whole fulfills Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with additional terms that depend on quadrupole moment.

Kleinert, Hagen

Title: From Landau's Order Parameter to Modern Disorder Fields

Abstract: Landau's work was crucial for the development of the modern theory of phase transitions. He showed that such transitions can be classified by an order parameter, which in the low-temperature phase becomes nonzero. Together with Ginzburg he made this order parameter a spacetime-dependent order field and introduced a local energy functional whose extrema yield field equations and whose fluctuations determine the universal critical behavior of second-order transitions. In the same spirit, but from a dual point of view, I have developed in the last twenty years a disorder field theory that describes phase transitions via the statistical mechanics of grand-canonical ensembles of vortex lines in superfluids and superconductors, or of defect lines in crystals. The Feynman diagrams of the disorder fields are pictures of the vortex or defect lines. A nonzero ground state expectation value of the disorder field at high temperature signalizes the proliferation of line like excitations in the ordered phase. It was this description of the superconductor that led in 1982 to a first understanding of the order of the superconducting phase transition. Recent experimental progress in the critical regime of high-TC superconductors will be able to verify the predicted tricritical point of the Ginzburg parameter \kappa \approx 0.8/ \sqrt{2} �where the second-order transition becomes first-order

Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

Title: Methane on Mars: Evidence for Life?

Abstract: History of the discovery and the current state of the problem of methane on Mars and related topics will be discussed. Methane and its variations on Mars are studied by three observing teams, and the results will be presented. Delivery of methane by cometary and meteorite impacts, geological sources of methane, and its production by methanogenic bacteria are compared. Considering all pros and contra for each of these sources, the biological production of methane looks plausible. That may be the first and currently the only sign of extraneous life in the Solar System.

Kurochkin, Yuri

Title: Vector parameterization of the Lorentz group transformation and polar decomposition of the Mueller matrices

Astract: It was demonstrated that presentation of the coherent matrix (polarization density matrix) of the electromagnetic beams as biquaternion corresponding to the four-vector of the pseudo Euclidean space with intensity and Stokes parameters as components gives the possibility for introducing of group transformations of such values isomorphic to the S(3.1) group. These transformations are the subset of the set of polarization Mueller matrices creating algebraic structure of semigroup. Reduction of the semigroup of Mueller matrices to group of transformations make it possible to use of vector parameterization of transformations of the group SO(3.1) for interpretation of polar decomposition of Mueller matrices. In this approach in particular the elements of Mueller matrices corresponding to retarders and polarizers are more simple and natural connected with there eigenpolarizations.

Kuvshinov, Viacheslav

Title: Quark Entanglement and Confinement in QCD

Abstract: Quarks are maximally and classically entangled. ► The states of charges can be entangled with each other and with the environment ► We trace over the states of the environment ( = Yang-Mills field) and obtain the reduced density matrix of the biparticle system ( = quark-antiquark pair) Confinement corresponds Entanglement.

Minkevich, Albert

Title: Accelerating Universe without dark energy and dark matter, and spacetime torsion

Abstract: Isotropic cosmology built in the framework of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity based on general expression of gravitational Lagrangian is investigated. It is shown that by certain restrictions on indefinite parameters of gravitational Lagrangian cosmological equations at asymptotics take the same form as cosmological equations of standard CDM-model. Terms related to dark matter and dark energy in cosmological equations of general relativity theory for CDM-model are connected in considered theory with the change of gravitational interaction provoked by spacetime torsion.

Popov, Vladimir

Title: From super-charged nuclei to massive nuclear density cores

Abstract: Due to e⁺e⁻-pair production in the field of supercritical (Z≫Zcr≈170) nucleus an electron shell, created out of the vacuum, is formed. The distribution of the vacuum charge in this shell has been determined for super-charged, Ze³ ><1, nuclei within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi equation generalized to relativistic case. For Ze³≫1 the electron shell penetrates inside the nucleus and almost completely screens its charge. Inside such nucleus the potential takes a constant value equal to V₀=-(3π²np)1/3∼-2mπc², and super-charged nucleus represents an electrically neutral plasma consisting of e,p and n. Near the edge of the nucleus a transition layer exists with a width δ≈α-1/2ℏ/mπc∼15 fm, which is independent of Z (ℏ/mπc≪δ≪ℏ/mec). The electric field and surface charge are concentrated in this layer. These results, obtained earlier for hypothetical superheavy nuclei with Z∼A<104÷106, are extrapolated to massive nuclear density cores having a mass number A≈(mPlanck/mn)∼10⁵⁷. The problem of the gravitational and electrodynamical stability of these objects is considered, a new island of stability is found for A>AR=0.039(Z/A)1/2(mPlanck/mn)³. The Coulomb repulsion of protons, screened by relativistic electrons, is balanced by the gravitational self-interaction of the core. The overcritical electric fields E∼mπ²c³/eℏ are present in the transition layer near surface of the core. The relation between A and Z is generalized to an arbitrary values of the mass number A, and the phenomenological relations for A<150 are obtained as a limiting case.

Popruzhenko, Sergej

Title: Zeldovich regularization method in quantum mechanics

Abstract: A new method of divergent series summation is considered. The method roots out of the regularization procedure invented by Zeldovich in the theory of quasistationary states. We show that the Zeldovich method is more powerful than the well-known Abel and Borel methods and consistent with them, i.e. gives the same result for the series sum in case all three methods are applicable. By applying the Zeldovich method we evaluate the Stark shifts and the widths of weakly bound s-states in the field of a circularly polarized strong electromagnetic wave.

Red'kov, Viktor

Title: Classical particle in presence of magnetic field, hyperbolic Lobachevski and spherical Riemann models

Abstract: 1. Newton second law in Lobachevsky and Riemann spaces; 2. Particle in the uniform magnetic field, hyperbolic model H_{3}; 3. Simplest solutions in Lobachevsky model; 4. Conserved energy in hyperbolic case; 5. Particle in magnetic field and Lagrange formalism in Lobachevsky space; 6. All possible trajectories in H_{3}and SO(3,1)homogeneity of the model; 7.Particle in magnetic field, spherical Riemann model S_{3}; 8. Simplest solutions in spherical space; 9. Conserved quantity energy in Riemann space S_{3}; 10. Particle in magnetic field and Lagrange formalism in spherical model S_{3}; 11. All possible trajectories and SO(4) homogeneity of the space S_{3}; 12. Space shifts and gauge symmetry of the uniform magnetic field in H_{3}; 13. Space shifts in space S_{3} and gauge symmetry in magnetic field; 14. Hamilton-Jacobi approach on the background of hyperbolic geometry; 15. Hamilton-Jacobi approach on the background of spherical geometry. Discussion: cosmological aspects of the problem.

Ryabushko, Anton

Nemanova, Innessa

Zhur, Tatyana

Title: Equations of Motion in the General Relativity

Abstract: Review of the published works, new results of the byelorussian school on motion of bodies and on problem of the stability in the general relativity. 

Ruffini, Remo

Title: Gamma Ray Bursts and fundamental physics

Abstract: The systematic observations from space and from the ground of the largest optical, radio, X-ray and Gamma ray observatories has given unprecedented details in the data of Gamma Ray Bursts sources. A canonical model is emerging: the fireshell model, following three basic interpretation paradigms introduced by our group in 2001. Frontiers of fundamental physics are explored.

Shakura, Nikolay

Title: On the Theory of Disk Accretion onto Black Holes and Neutron Stars

Abstract: Basics of the Standard Accretion Disk Theory is rewied.

Shalyt-Margolin, Alexander

Title: Entropy in the present and early Universe and energy of the vacuum

Abstract: It is demonstrated that entropy and its density play a significant role in solving the problem of the vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in the Universe and hence the dark energy problem. Taking this in mind, two most popular models for dark energy - Holographic Dark Energy Model and Agegraphic Dark Energy Model - are analyzed. It is shown that the fundamental quantities in these models may be expressed in terms of a new small parameter. Besides, the recent results obtained by Minic and his colleagues on the uncertainty relation of the pair "cosmological constant - volume of space-time", where the cosmological constant is a dynamic quantity, are reconsidered and generalized up tî the Generalized Uncertainty Relation (GUP).

Shnir, Yakov

Title: Abelian and Non-Abelian Hopfions through the eyes of projective spaces

Abstract: We discuss possibility of existence of higher dimensional knotted solitons associated with the second Hofp map. The correspondence between the counterparts of these solitons and the Faddeev-Niemi knots accociated with the first hopf map is reviewed in detail.

Shumeiko, Nikolai

Title: To the utmost secrecy of matter

Abstract: A brief review of the contemporary data and suppositions about depths of matter is given. Basic problems of particle and high energy physics are discussed. Possibilities and perspectives connected with the experiments at the LHC are outlined.

Silenko, Alexander

Title: Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames

Abstract: A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. Spin dynamics in the classical gravity can be described by the Pomeransky-Khriplovich equation (PKE). However, the angular velocity of spin precession defined by the PKE depends on the choice of the tetrad. The connection of this dependence with the Thomas precession is considered. To determine the observable angular velocity of spin precession for nonstatic spacetimes, one needs to supplement the results obtained by Pomeransky and Khriplovich with the correction for the Thomas precession. Taking into account this correction results in the agreement between the Pomeransky-Khriplovich and our results. The description of spin dynamics in the relativistic quantum mechanics is based on the Dirac equation. For particles in nonstatic spacetimes, we bring this equation to the Hamiltonian form. After this, we perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for relativistic particles in external fields. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of spin motion for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches. We also obtain equations of particle dynamics. The classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of particles are also almost identical and can differ only in small terms.

Surdin, Vladimir

Title: Searches for extraterrestrial life

Abstract: A brief review of the three topics: 1) Where to look for life elsewhere in the Solar System; 2) Investigation of exoplanetary systems; 3) Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligents.

Tikhomirov, Victor

Title: Inflation, a major breakthrough of the second part of the XX Century

Abstract: Basic ideas of the Inflation Model are reviewed.

Tomilchik, Lev

Title: Hubble law as a kinematical outcome of space-time conformal geometry

Abstract: The description of the cosmologic expansion and its possible local manifestations as a pure kinematical effects of the space-time conformal geometry is given. The explicit form of the conformal deformation of time is established. The expression defining the cosmological distance in the form of simple function on the red shift is obtained. By coupling it with the well-known relativistic dependence of the relative velocity of the red shift the explicit analytic expression for the Hubble law is obtained. The expression generalizing the conventional Hubble law reproduces the experimentally observed phenomenon which in the frame of the conventional cosmological paradigm is treated as the transition from the decelerated expansion of the Universe to the accelerated one. The expression for conformal time deformation in the small time limit leads to the quadratic time non-linearity. Being applied to described the location-type experiments, this predicts the existence of the uniformly changing blue-shifted frequency drift. Phenomenon of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA) is treated as the first of a such a kind of effects discovered experimentally. The obtained formulae reproduced the PA experimental data.

Xue, Shesheng

Title: On the gravitational, electroweak and strong interactions of massive nuclear density cores

Abstract: We present a unified treatment of massive nuclear density cores with mass number A~(m_Planck/m_n)^3~10^(57). The treatment consists of solving the general relativistic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and Thomas-Fermi equations for a neutral core of neutrons, protons and electrons taking strong and electroweak interactions into account. We find that the nucleon density distribution has a very sharp boundary at the core radius R_c with a width of order of Fermi, and an overcritical electric field appears near to the sharp boundary. The Coulomb repulsion, screened by ultra-relativistic electrons, is balanced by the gravitational self-interaction of the core. A new island of stability is found for the mass number A>A_R = 0.039(N_p/A)^(1/2)(m_Planck/m_n))^3 (N_p the total proton number).

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