In 1985 George Coyne, Francis Everitt, Fang LiZhi, Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel laureate 2002), Remo Ruffini, Abdus Salam (Nobel laureate 1979), promoted the establishment of the International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics (ICRA), asking the Rector of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" Antonio Ruberti to host the Centre at the Physics Department. ICRA became legal entity in 1991. A successful story of research followed for 20 years. ICRA was further extended to other Institutions, as it is clear from the current Statute.
Founders of ICRA. Above: George Coyne and Remo Ruffini in presence of His Holyness John Paul II; Francis Everitt; Fang LiZhi. Below: Riccardo Giacconi receiving his Nobel prize in 2002; Riccardo Giacconi (right), with Hagen Kleinert (middle) and Remo Ruffini (left), in the basement of the ICRANet Centre in Pescara during his 6 years mandate as President of the ICRANet Scientific Committee from 2006 to 2012; Abdus Salam.
At the dawn of the new millennium it was approached the need to extend this activity, based on Italian national laws, to the International scenario. Thanks to the support and advise of the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, a Statute was drafted for creating a truly international organization to develop the field of relativistic astrophysics worldwide. ICRANet has been indeed created by a law of the Italian Government, ratified unanimously by the Italian Parliament and signed by the President of the Republic of Italy on February 10th 2005. The Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Italy, the Vatican State, ICRA, the University of Arizona and the Stanford University have been the Founding Members. On August 12th, 2011 the President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff signed the entrance of Brazil in ICRANet. All of them have ratified the Statute of ICRANet (see Enclosures 1234).
Extensive Scientific reports have been presented every year to the Scientific Committee by the Director of ICRANet (see http://www.icranet.org/AnnualReports). The aim of this 2017 report is to review the traditional fields of research, upgrade the publication list and scientific results obtained in the meantime in the ICRANet Centers in Italy, Armenia, Brazil, France, report on the status of the requests of adhesion to ICRANet (see Enclosure 5), indicate the composition of the Faculty, of the Administrative Staff, of the Lecturers, of the Students. The Curricula of the ICRANet Staff are given in the Accompanying Document "The ICRANet Staff, Visiting Scientists and Graduate Students at the Pescara Center".
Prof. Roy Kerr, Yevgeny Mikhajilovic Lifshitz ICRANet Chair Professor, recipient of the Crafoord Prize 2016, the "Nobel Prize" in Astrophysics: the third prize awarded by the Swedish Academy to the ICRANet Faculty, after the Nobel Prizes to Abdus Salam and Riccardo Giacconi
In June 2017, Prof. Remo Ruffini, Director of ICRANet, and Prof. Roy Kerr, Yevgeny Mikhajilovic Lifshitz ICRANet Chair Professor and recipient of the Crafoord Prize 2016 (the "Nobel Prize" in Astrophysics), the third highest scientific prize awarded to ICRANet Faculty by the Swedish Academy after the Nobel Prizes to Abdus Salam and Riccardo Giacconi, gave two seminars at the University of Cambridge about the results recently obtained by ICRANet scientists on Black Holes and GammaRay bursts. The seminars have been uploaded in the ICRANet YouTube channel.
Prof. Roy Kerr receiving the 2016 Crafoord Award in Stockholm.
Prof. Ruffini and Prof. Kerr having dinner at Stephen Hawking home in Cambridge.
1. Three Textbooks from the ICRANet Faculty

1.1 Collective Classical and Quantum Fields
Hagen Kleinert
World Scientific, Singapore 2017
ISBN13: 9789813223936
ISBN10: 9813223936
This is an introductory book dealing with collective phenomena in manybody systems. A gas of bosons or fermions can show oscillations of various types of densities. These are described by different combinations of field variables. Especially delicate is the competition of these variables. In superfluid 3He, for example, the atoms can be attracted to each other by molecular forces, whereas they are repelled from each other at short distance due to a hardcore repulsion. The attraction gives rise to Cooper pairs, and the repulsion is overcome by paramagnon oscillations.

The combination is what finally led to the discovery of superfluidity in 3He. In general, the competition between various channels can most efficiently be studied by means of a classical version of the HubbardStratonovich transformation. A gas of electrons is controlled by the interplay of plasma oscillations and pair formation. In a system of rod or disclike molecules, liquid crystals are observed with directional orientations that behave in unusual fivefold or sevenfold symmetry patterns. The existence of such a symmetry was postulated in 1975 by the author and K. Maki. An aluminium material of this type was later manufactured by Dan Shechtman which won him the 2014 Nobel prize. The last chapter presents some solvable models, one of which was the first to illustrate the existence of broken supersymmetry in nuclei.


1.2 Relativistic Kinetic Theory With Applications in Astrophysics and Cosmology
Gregory V. Vereshchagin,
International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, Italy
Alexey G. Aksenov,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Cambridge University Press
Date Published: February 2017
ISBN: 9781107048225
Relativistic kinetic theory has widespread application in astrophysics and cosmology.

The interest has grown in recent years as experimentalists are now able to make reliable measurements on physical systems where relativistic effects are no longer negligible. This ambitious monograph is divided into three parts. It presents the basic ideas and concepts of this theory, equations and methods, including derivation of kinetic equations from the relativistic BBGKY hierarchy and discussion of the relation between kinetic and hydrodynamic levels of description. The second part introduces elements of computational physics with special emphasis on numerical integration of Boltzmann equations and related approaches, as well as multicomponent hydrodynamics. The third part presents an overview of applications ranging from covariant theory of plasma response, thermalization of relativistic plasma, comptonization in static and moving media to kinetics of selfgravitating systems, cosmological structure formation and neutrino emission during the gravitational collapse.


1.3 The Cosmological Singularity
Part of "Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics"
Vladimir Belinski
International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, Italy
Marc Henneaux,
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Cambridge University Press
Date Published: October 2017
ISBN: 9781107047471

Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a selfcontained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an uptodate mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and spacetime dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singularities, the billiard description, and emergent mathematical structures.
Read more at http://www.cambridge.org/it/academic/subjects/physics/theoreticalphysicsandmathematicalphysics/cosmologicalsingularity#YS3H1cuDPqFM4MhO.99

2. The 2017 ICRANet activities through the ICRANet Newsletter
We turn now to review the ICRANet activities of 2017 though the 6 issues of the ICRANet Newsletter bimonthly published in 2017 simultaneously in Armenian, Chinese, English, Italian, Portuguese, and Russian 2017 (see http://icranet.org/news  ICRANet Newsletters ).
3. International Meetings
I would like now to remind some Scientific Meetings organized by ICRANet in 2017 (see Enclosure 6).
We have completed the proceedings of:
 14^{th} Marcel Grossmann Meeting (MGXIV), Rome, Italy, July 1218, 2015 (proceedings published by World Scientific).
We have also organized the following meetings:
 1^{st} ICRANetMinsk workshop on high energy astrophysics, Minsk, Belarus, April 2628, 2017
 5^{th} Bego Scientific Rencontre, Nice, France, May 1529, 2017.
 5^{th} Galileo  Xu Guangqi Meeting, June 25 30, 2017 Chengdu (China).
 15^{th} ItalianKorean Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, Seoul, South Korea, July 3 – 7, 2017.
4. Scientific agreements
Particularly intense have been the confirmation and extension of the existent agreements with the Universities and research centres.
These collaborations are crucial in order to give ICRANet scientists the possibility to give courses and lectures in the Universities and, viceversa, to provide to the Faculty of such Universities the opportunity to spend research periods in ICRANet institutions.
Map of the Institutions worldwide which signed an agreement with ICRANet, with the corresponding exchanges of professors, researchers and postdocs, as well as with the joint meetings organized. For an interactive version of this map, with the details of each and every Institution, see http://www.icranet.org/ScientificAgreements.
5. The International Ph.D. Program in Relativistic Astrophysics (IRAPPhD)
One of the strong tools of success of the activity of ICRANet has been the International Ph.D. Program in Relativistic Astrophysics (IRAPPhD) promoted by ICRANet (see Enclosure 7). In 2016 Armenia joined the French, German and Italian Universities in granting the degree.
One of the major success of ICRANet has been to participate in the International competition of the Erasmus Mundus Ph.D. program and the starting of this program from the 2010. The participating institutions are:
 AEI – Albert Einstein Institute – Potsdam (Germany)
 Bremen University (Germany)
 Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (Germany)
 CBPF – Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (Brazil)
 Ferrara University (Italy)
 Indian centre for space physics (India)
 INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil)
 Institut Hautes Etudes Scientifiques – IHES (France)
 Inst. of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science – IHEPCAS, China
 MaxPlanckInstitut für Radioastronomie – MPIfR (Germany)
 Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France)
 National Academy of Science (Armenia)
 Observatory of the Côte d'Azur (France)
 Rome University – "Sapienza" (Italy)
 Savoie University (France)
 Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China)
 Stockholm University (Sweden)
 Tartu Observatory (Estonia)
Institutions participating in the IRAPPhD program
The IRAP PHD program intends to create conditions for high level education in Astrophysics mainly in Europe to create a new generation of leading scientists in the region. No single university in Europe today has the expertise required to attain this ambitious goal by itself. For this reason we have identified universities which offers a very large complementarity expertise. The students admitted and currently following courses and doing research in such a program are given in the following:
Third Cycle 200407
 Chiappinelli Anna  France
 Cianfrani Francesco  Italy
 Guida Roberto  Italy
 Rotondo Michael  Italy
 Vereshchagin Gregory  Belarus
 Yegoryan Gegham  Armenia
Fourth Cycle 200508
 Battisti Marco Valerio  Italy
 Dainotti Maria Giovanna  Italy
 Khachatryan Harutyun  Armenia
 Lecian Orchidea Maria  Italy
 Pizzi Marco  Italy
 Pompi Francesca  Italy
Fifth Cycle 200609
 Caito Letizia  Italy
 De Barros Gustavo  Brasil
 Minazzoli Olivier  Switzerland
 Patricelli Barbara  Italy
 Rangel Lemos Luis Juracy  Brasil
 Rueda Hernandez Jorge Armando  Colombia
Sixth Cycle 20072010
 Ferroni Valerio  Italy
 Izzo Luca  Italy
 Kanaan Chadia  Lebanon
 Pugliese Daniela  Italy
 Siutsou Ivan  Belarus
 Sigismondi Costantino  Italy
Seventh Cycle 20082011
 Belvedere Riccardo  Italy
 Ceccobello Chiara  Italy
 Ferrara Walter  Italy
 Ferrari Francesca  Italy
 Han Wenbiao  China
 Luongo Orlando  Italy
 Pandolfi Stefania  Italy
 Taj Safia  Pakistan
Eight Cycle 20092012
 Boshkayev Kuantay  Kazakhstan
 Bravetti Alessandro  Italy
 Ejlli Damian  Albanian
 Fermani Paolo  Italian
 Haney Maria  German
 Menegoni Eloisa  Italy
 Sahakyan Narek  Armenia
 Saini Sahil  Indian
Ninth Cycle 20102013 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
 Arguelles Carlos  Argentina
 Benetti Micol  Italy
 Muccino Marco  Italy
 Baranov Andrey  Russia
 Benedetti Alberto  Italian
 Dutta Parikshit  India
 Fleig Philipp  Germany
 Gruber Christine  Austria
 Liccardo Vincenzo  Italy
 Machado De Oliveira Fraga Bernardo  Brazil
 Martins De Carvalho Sheyse  Brazil
 Penacchioni Ana Virginia  Argentina
 Valsan Vineeth  India
Tenth Cycle 20112014 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
 Cáceres Uribe, Diego Leonardo  Colombia
 Raponi, Andrea  Italy
 Wang, Yu  China
 Begue, Damien  France
 Dereli, Husne  Turkey
 Gregoris, Daniele  Italy
 Iyyani, Shabnam Syamsunder  India
 Pereira, Jonas Pedro  Brazil
 Pisani, Giovanni  Italy
 Rakshit, Suvendu  India
 Sversut Arsioli, Bruno  Brazil
 Wu, Yuanbin  China
Eleventh Cycle 20122015 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
 Barbarino, Cristina  Italy
 Bardho, Onelda  Albania
 Cipolletta, Federico  Italy
 Dichiara, Simone  Italy
 Enderli, Maxime  France
 Filina, Anastasia  Russia
 Galstyan, Irina  Armenia
 Gomes De Oliveira, Fernanda  Brazil
 Khorrami, Zeinab  Iran
 Ludwig, Hendrik  Germany
 Sawant, Disha  India
 Strobel, Eckhard  Germany
Twelfth Cycle 20132016 (including Erasmus Mundus call and CAPESICRANet call)
 Ahlén, Olof  Sweden
 Becerra Bayona, Laura  Colombia
 Brandt, Carlos Henrique  Brazil
 Carvalho, Gabriel  Brazil
 Gómez, Gabriel  Colombia
 Harutyunyan, Vahagn  Armenia
 Kovacevic, Milos  Serbia
 Li, Liang  China
 Lisakov, Sergey  Russia
 Maiolino, Tais  Brazil
 Pereira Lobo, Iarley  Brazil
 Sridhar, Srivatsan  India
 Stahl, Clément  France
 Yang Xiaofeng  China
Thirteenth Cycle 20142017 (including Erasmus Mundus call and CAPESICRANet call)
 Aimuratov, Yerlan  Kazakhstan
 Chang, YuLing  Taiwan
 Delgado, Camilo  Colombia
 Efremov, Pavel  Ukraine
 Gardai Collodel, Lucas  Brazil
 Karlica, Mile  Croatia
 Krut, Andreas  Germany
 Martinez Aviles, Gerardo  Mexico
 Moradi, Rahim  Iran
 Otoniel da Silva, Edson  Brazil
 Silva de Araújo Sadovski, Guilherme  Brazil
 Ramos Cardoso, Tatiana  Brazil
 Rodriguez Ruiz, Jose Fernando  Colombia
Fourteenth Cycle 20152018
 AlSaud Naiyf Saud  Saudi Arabia
 Almonacid Guerrero William Alexander  Colombia
 Gardai Collodel Lucas  Brazil/Hungary
 Gutierrez Saavedra Julian Steven  Colombia
 Isidoro dos Santos Júnior Samuel  Brazil
 Meira Lindolfo  Brazil
 Melon Fuksman Julio David  Argentina
 Primorac Daria  Croatia
 Silva de Araujo Sadovski Guilherme  Brazil
 Uribe Suárez Juan David  Colombia
Fifteenth Cycle 20162019:
 Baghmanyan Vardan  Armenia
 BediÄ‡ Suzana  Croatia
 Campion Stefano  Italy
 Chen Yen Chen  Taiwan
 Gasparyan Sargis  Armenia
 Vieira Lobato Ronaldo  Brazil
 Zargaryan Davit  Armenia
6. Summary of the Main Lines of Research from Volume 2 and Volume 3 of the Report.
We can now turn to the review of the scientific topics covered in the volumes 2 and 3.
High Energy Gammarays from Active Galactic Nuclei (Page 1).
Particularly important is this report, which summarizes the activities traditionally carried on by the ICRANet Armenian Scientists in the MAGIC and HESS collaborations, which acquire a particular relevance in view of the ICRANet Seat at the National Academy of Science in Armenia. This topic was motivated by Prof. Felix Aharonian joining ICRANet as representative of Armenia in the Scientific Committee and by his appointment as Adjunct Professor of ICRANet on the Benjamin Jegischewitsch Markarjan Chair. Many of the observational work done by Prof. Aharonian are crucial for the theoretical understanding of the ultra high energy sources. Prof. Aharonian started also his collaboration with the IRAP PhD program where he is following the thesis of graduate students as thesis advisor. The evolution and future prospects on the analysis of the highenergy gammaray emission are presented in this report by Prof. Aharonian and Dr. Sahakyan. The main new contribution in this very successful traditional field of research has been the nomination of Prof. Narek Sahakyan as Director of Yerevan ICRANet Centre. The support of the State Science Committee of Armenia has allowed to create in that Seat a remarkable number of PhD students, and of Master and undergraduate students, with administrative and technical support and further looking to the entrance of Armenia in the IRAPPhD.
The MAGIC telescope
Papers published in 2017 include:
·D. Zargaryan, S. Gasparyan, V. Baghmanyan and N. Sahakyan, "Comparing 3C 120 jet emission at small and large scales", Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 608, id. A37, 10, 2017.
·U. Barres de Almeida, F. Bernardo, P. Giommi, N. Sahakyan, S. Gasparyann and C. Brandt, "LongTerm MultiBand and Polarimetric View of Mkn 421: Motivations for an Integrated OpenData Platform for Blazar Optical Polarimetry", Galaxies, vol. 5, issue 4, p. 90, 2017.
·V. Baghmanyan, S. Gasparyan and N. Sahakyan, "Rapid GammaRay Variability of NGC 1275", The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848, Issue 2, article id. 111, 8, 2017.
·N. Sahakyan and S. Gasparyan "High energy gammaray emission from PKS 1441+25", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 470, 3, p.28612869, 2017.
·N. Sahakyan, V. Baghmanyan, and D. Zargaryan, "Gammaray Emission from NonBlazar AGNs", AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1792, Issue 1, id.050002, 2017.
·N. Sahakyan and S. Gasparyan, ”High Energy GammaRays From PKS 1441+25", AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1792, Issue 1, id.050005, 2017.
·V. Baghmanyan, "GammaRay Variability of NGC 1275", AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1792, Issue 1, id.050007, 2017.
·D. Zargaryan, "The GammaRay Emission from BroadLine Radio Galaxy 3C 120",AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1792, Issue 1, id.050008, 2017.
The ICRANet Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC) and Multifrequency selection and studies of blazars (Page 99)
The BSDC has been one of the leading projects of ICRANet Brazil which has been more significantly affected by the absence of support from Brazil. No matter these economical difficulties, the BSDC Centre has been fully operative and is now producing the first ICRANet catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei and of GammaRay Bursts.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Barres de Almeida, U.; Bodmann, B.; Giommi, P.; Brandt, C., The Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC) 2017, International Journal of Modern Physics Conference Series, 45.
·Chang, Y.L.; Arsioli, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P., 2WHSP: A multifrequency selected catalog of VHE gammaray blazars and blazar candidates, 2017, A&A, 598, 17
·Arsioli, B.; Chang, Y.L., Searching for gammaray signature in WHSP blazars: FermiLAT detection of 150 excess signal in the 0.3500 GeV band (1BIGB sample), 2017, A&A, 598, 134.
·Padovani P., Resconi E., Giommi P., Arsioli B., Chang Y.L., Extreme blazars as counterparts of IceCube astrophysical neutrinos, 2016 MNRAS 457, 3582.
·Resconi E., Coenders S., Padovani P., Giommi P., and Caccianiga L., Connecting blazars with ultra high energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos, 2017, MNRAS, 468, 597
·Padovani P., Alexander D.~M., Assef R.~J., De Marco B., Giommi P., Hickox R.~C., Richards G.~T., Smolcic V., Hatziminaoglou E., Mainieri V., and Salvato, M., Active galactic nuclei: what's in a name?, A&ARv, 25, 2, 2017.
Exact solutions of Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell equations (Page 141)
This field has been pioneered by Prof. Belinski, in collaboration with Prof. Thibault Damour in Paris, Prof. Mark Henneaux at the University of Bruxelles, Prof. Hermann Nicolai in Berlin. A Lectio Magistralis by Prof. Belinski on the physics of fundamental interaction and unification field theory which is available on the ICRANet channel on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omyR2hcgFic).
The application of the Inverse Scattering Method (ISM), based on the Lax representation, to the integration of the vacuum Einstein equations was developed in 1978 by V.A.Belinski and V.E.Zakharov (BZ in the sequel). By this method they discovered the gravitational solitons, that is the solitonic excitations of the gravitational field in empty spacetime. In particular, there was shown that the Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes are solitons in the exact mathematical sense. Before 1987 only two cases of nonvacuum extension of this techniques were known. These are the case of perfect liquid with stiff matter equation of state (V.A.Belinski, 1979) and the case of electromagnetic field (G.A.Alekseev, 1980). In the framework of the last extention it was shown that the ReissnerNordstrom and KerrNewman black holes also are solitons in the exact mathematical sense.
Quite new nonvacuum extension of the ISM have been found in supergravity when twodimensional spacetime is filled by the scalar fields and their fermionic superpartners. This outstanding integrable model have been created in 1987 by H.Nicolai. However, in spite of the big principal success this model had two technical shortcomings: (i) the integrability conditions of the Nicolai Lax pair does not contains the Diraclike equations for the fermionic fields. Instead this linear spectral problem gives only a system of equations for some bosonic quadratic combinations made from fermions, (ii) the Nicolai Laxpair has the poles of the second order in the complex plane of the spectral parameter while the pure gravity Lax representation has the poles of the first order only.
The question aroused whether the Nicolai model can be covered by appropriately extended BZ approach because the last one is simpler and contains the fully developed technics for construction the exact solitonic solutions. This question was answered in affirmative and the foregoing two technical nuisances was removed during 20152016 in collaboration between ICRANet and Albert Einstein Institute at Golm.
To cover the Nicolai model by the BZ approach it is necessary to extend the last one to the multidimensional superspace (including the anticommuting coordinates). In such a framework it was found the reformulation of the Nicolai linear spectral problem in the form containing only simple poles with respect the spectral parameter and leading (apart of equations for scalar fields) also to the Diraclike equations for the fermionic superpartners of these scalars.
Alongside with application to the Nicolai supergravity the constructed generalization of the BZ approach in superspace contains a possibility to generate the equations of motion for the much bigger array of the interacting bosonic and fermionic fields. However, the physical meaning of these new integrable systems remains to be clarified.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·V. Belinski, "On the integrable gravity coupled to fermions", Phys. Lett. B, 769, 100 (2017).
·G.A. Alekseev "Integrable and nonintegrable structures in Einstein  Maxwell equations with Abelian isometry group G2",arXiv:1702.05925, 20 Feb. 2017.
·V. Belinski and M. Henneaux "The Cosmological Singularity", Cambridge University Press, October 2017.
·V. Belinski and G. Vereshchagin "On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances", arXiv:1710.11588 [grqc].
·D. FloresAlfonso, H. Quevedo "Topological quantum numbers of dyonic fields over TaubNUT and TaubBolt spaces", Journal of Geometry and Symmetry in Physics, 44, 39 (2017).
·K. Boshkayev, H. Quevedo, B. Zhami "ILOVEQ relations for white dwarf stars", Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 464, 4349 (2017).
·H. Quevedo, M.N. Quevedo, A. Sanchez "Homogeneity and thermodynamics identities in geometrothermodynamics", Eur. Phys. Journ. C, 77, 158 (2017).
·D. Pugliese, H. Quevedo, R. Ruffini “General classification of charged test particle circular orbit in ReissnerNordstrom spacetime”, Eur. Phys. Journ. C, 77, 206 (2017).
·C. Gruber, H. Quevedo “Geometrothermodynamic model for the evolution of the Universe”, Journ. Cosm. Astroparticle Phys., Issue 7, 032 (2017).
·V. Dzhunushaliev, H. Quevedo “Einstein equations with fluctuating volume”, Grav. Cosm., 23, 280 (2017).
·D. Bini and T. Damour "Gravitational spinorbit coupling in binary systems, postMinkowskian approximation and effective onebody theory", Phys. Rev. D, 96, 104038 (2017).
·D. Bini and T. Damour "Gravitational scattering of two black holes at the fourth postNewtonian approximation", Phys. Rev. D, 96, 064021 (2017).
·C. Kavanagh, D. Bini, T. Damour, S. Hopper, A.C. Ottewill, B. Wardell "Spinorbit precession along eccentric orbits for extreme mass ratio black hole binaries and its effectiveonebody transcription", Phys. Rev. D, 96, 064012 (2017).
·T. Damour and Ph. Spindel "Quantum Supersymmetric Cosmological Billiards and their Hidden KacMoody Structure", Phys. Rev. D, 95, 126011 (2017).
·T. Damour and P. Jaranowskiy "On the fourloop static contribution to the gravitational interaction potential of two point masses", Phys. Rev. D, 95, 084005 (2017).
GammaRay Bursts (Page 151)
This has been one the most important field of research at the ICRANet Centre in Pescara. Many breaking new results have been obtained in 2017.
Following the new GRB classification into seven different families introduced by ICRANet in 2016, we published the first catalog of all the observed Binary Driven Hypernovae (BdHNe), the GRB family which corresponds to the most energetic "long GRBs", with more than 300 analyzed sources.
Moreover, in 2016 we started a complete rewrite of the numerical codes used to simulate the evolution of the electronpositron plasma producing a GRB and its interaction with the surrounding medium. This was meant to upgrade from the simplified semianalytical approach, which had been used until then, to a full numerical integration of the complete system of partial differential equations describing the system. This upgrade of the numerical codes is still ongoing. In 2017 the first results of these new codes have been applied successfully to the study of early XRay Flares observed in BdHNe. This led to the first comprehensive theory of the phenomenon and to the definition of the spacetime diagram of BdHNe, which clearly show the markedly different regimes between the GRB prompt emission, with Lorentz gamma factors on the order of 102103, and the XRay flares, with Lorentz gamma factors smaller than 4.
Different regimes in GRB prompt emission (left) and XRay flares (right).
Details in Ruffini, et al., ApJ, 852, 53 (2018).
Spacetime diagram of BdHNe. Details in Ruffini, et al., ApJ, 852, 53 (2018).
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Y. Aimuratov, R. Ruffini, M. Muccino, C.L. Bianco, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, D. Primorac, J.A. Rueda, Y. Wang; GRB 081024B and GRB 140402A: Two Additional Short GRBs from Binary Neutron Star Mergers; The Astrophysical Journal, 844, 83 (2017).
·J.A. Rueda, Y. Aimuratov, U. Barres de Almeida, L.M. Becerra, C.L. Bianco, C. Cherubini, S. Filippi, M. Karlica, M. Kovacevic, J.D. Melon Fuksman, R. Moradi, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, D. Primorac, R. Ruffini, N. Sahakyan, S. Shakeri, Y. Wang; The binary systems associated with short and long gammaray bursts and their detectability; International Journal of Modern Physics D, 26, 1730016 (2017).
·R. Ruffini, Y. Aimuratov, L.M. Becerra, C.L. Bianco, M. Karlica, M. Kovacevic, J.D. Melon Fuksman, R. Moradi, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, D. Primorac, J.A. Rueda, S. Shakeri, G.V. Vereshchagin, Y. Wang, S.S. Xue; The cosmic matrix in the 50th anniversary of relativistic astrophysics; International Journal of Modern Physics D, 26, 1730019 (2017).
·R. Ruffini, Y. Wang, Y. Aimuratov, U. Barres de Almeida, L.M. Becerra, C.L. Bianco, Y.C. Chen, M. Karlica, M. Kovacevic, L. Li, J.D. Melon Fuksman, R. Moradi, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, D. Primorac, J.A. Rueda, S. Shakeri, G.V. Vereshchagin, S.S. Xue; Early XRay Flares in GRBs; The Astrophysical Journal, 852, 53 (2018).
Theoretical Astroparticle Physics (Page 349)
Astroparticle physics is a new field of research emerging at the intersection of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We focused on several topics with three major directions of research: a) electronpositron plasma, b) thermal emission from relativistic plasma and GRBs, c) Relativistic kinetic theory and its applications; d) ultra high energy particles and e) Selfgravitating systems of Dark Matter particles.
Electronpositron plasma appear relevant for GRBs and also for the Early Universe, in laboratory experiments with ultraintense lasers, etc. Our numerical results indicate that the rates of threeparticle interactions become comparable to those of twoparticle ones for temperatures exceeding the electron restmass energy. Thus three particle interactions such as relativistic bremsstrahlung, double Compton scattering and radiative pair creation become essential not only for establishment of thermal equilibrium, but also for correct evaluation of interaction rates, energy losses etc. We found strong anisotropies in reaction rates in threeparticle interactions.
We also obtained new results on propagation of ultra high energy particles, such as photons, neutrinos and protons, at cosmological distances and the limiting distance (cosmic horizon) is obtained as function of particle energy. In addition, new calculations are performed for the cosmic horizon for photons subject to photonphoton scattering.
In cosmology the new results were obtained on novel constraints on fermionic dark matter from galactic observables.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·G.V. Vereshchagin and A. G. Aksenov, "Relativistic Kinetic Theory With Applications in Astrophysics and Cosmology", Cambridge University Press (2017).
·V.A. Belinski and G.V. Vereshchagin, "On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances", submitted to Phys. Lett. B, 2017; arXiv:1710.11588.
·C. R. Arguelles, A. Krut, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini, "Novel constraints on fermionic dark matter from galactic observables", MNRAS, submitted (2017), arXiv: 1606.07040[v2]
·N. E. Mavromatos, C. R. Arguelles, R. Ruffini, and J. A. Rueda, "Selfinteracting dark matter", IJMPD, Volume 26, Issue 3, id. 1730007 (2017).
Generalization of the KerrNewman solution (Page 419)
The unsolved problem of a physical solution in general relativity of an astrophysical object which must be characterized necessarily by four parameters, mass, charge, angular momentum and quadrupole moment, has also been debated for years and it is yet not satisfactorily solved. The presence in ICRANet of Prof. Quevedo as an Adjunct Professor has shown an important result published by Bini, Geralico, Longo, Quevedo [Class. Quant. Grav., 26 (2009), 225006]. This result has been obtained for the special case of a MashhoonQuevedo solution characterized only by mass, angular momentum and quadrupole moment. It has been shown that indeed such a MashhoonQuevedo solution can be matched to an internal solution solved in the postNewtonian approximation by Hartle and Thorne for a rotating star.
The most important metrics in general relativity is the KerrNewman solution which describes the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a rotating charged mass, characterized by its mass M, charge Q and angular momentum L in geometrical units. This solution characterizes the field of a black hole. For astrophysical purposes, however, it is necessary to take into account the effects due to the moment of inertia of the object. To attack this problem, an exact solution of the EinsteinMaxwell equations have been proposed by Mashhoon and Quevedo which posses an infinite set of gravitational and electromagnetic multipole moments. It is not clear, however, how this external solution to an astrophysical object can be matched to a physical internal solution corresponding to a physically acceptable rotating mass.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·D. Pugliese, H. Quevedo and R. Ruffini, Eur. Phys. J. C 77, 4, 206 (2017).
·D. Pugliese and Z. Stuchlik, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 229, 2, 40 (2017).
Black Holes and Quasars (Page 525)
This report refers to the activity of Prof. Brian Punsly, who is actively participating within ICRANet with the publication of his internationally recognized book on "Black hole gravitohydromagnetics", the first and second edition (2010) being published with Springer. In addition, Prof. Punsly have been interested in observational properties of quasars such as broad line emission excess in radio loud quasars accentuated for polar line of sight and excess narrow line widths of broad emission lines in broad absorption line quasars, showing that this is best explained by polar lines of sight.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Punsly, Brian; A Jet Source of Event Horizon Telescope Correlated Flux in M87, ApJ 850, 190 (2017)
·Punsly, Brian;, Kharb, Preeti The kinetically dominated quasar 3C 418, MNRAS Lett. 468 72 (2017)
·Reynolds, Cormac; Punsly, Brian; Miniutti, Giovanni; O'Dea, Christopher P.; HurleyWalker, Natasha., The Relativistic Jetaccretion FlowWind Connection in Mrk 231, ApJ 836 155 (2017)
Cosmology group of Tartu Observatory (Page 529)
Prof. Einasto has been collaborating in the previous years intensively within ICRANet about the large scale structure of the Universe and its possible fractal structure. With Prof. Einasto there is also the collaboration of Prof. G. Hutsi. Prof. Einasto is an Adjunct Professor of ICRANet and an active member of the Faculty of the IRAP PhD. Prof. Einasto has completed a book reviewing the status of the dark matter and the large scale structure of the universe published by World Scientific as Volume 14^{th} in the Advanced Series in Astrophysics and Cosmology Series edited by L.Z. Fang and R. Ruffini. This book covers the material of the lectures delivered in the IRAP PhD program as well as an historical perspective between the different approaches to the study of the dark matter content of the universe in the west and in the former Soviet union.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Cohen, S. A., Hickox, R. C., Wegner, G. A., Einasto, M., & Vennik, J. 2017, Star Formation and Supercluster Environment of 107 nearby Galaxy Clusters, ApJ, 835, 56
·Deshev, B., Finoguenov, A., Verdugo, M., Ziegler, B., Park, C., Seong, H. H., Haines, C., Kamphuis, P., Tamm, A., Einasto, M., Hwang, N., & Park, B.G. 2017b, VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abell 520 galaxies redshifts (Deshev+, 2017), VizieR Online Data Catalog, 360
·Einasto, J. 2017, Evolution of the Cosmic Web, in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, Vol. 511, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, ed. A. M. Mickaelian, H. A. Harutyunian, & E. H. Nikoghosyan, 141
·Einasto, J. 2018, Cosmology paradigm changes., Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 56
·Einasto, M., Lietzen, H., Gramann, M., Saar, E., Tempel, E., Liivamägi, L. J., MonteroDorta, A. D., Streblyanska, A., Maraston, C., & RubiñoMartín, J. A. 2017, BOSS Great Wall: morphology, luminosity, and mass, A&A, 603, A5
·Hirv, A., Pelt, J., Saar, E., Tago, E., Tamm, A., Tempel, E., & Einasto, M. 2017, Alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSSDR8, A&A, 599, A31
·Järvelä, E., Lähteenmäki, A., Lietzen, H., Poudel, A., Heinämäki, P., & Einasto, M. 2017, Largescale environments of narrowline Seyfert 1 galaxies, A&A, 606, A9
·Kuutma, T., Tamm, A., & Tempel, E. 2017, From voids to filaments: environmental transformations of galaxies in the SDSS, A&A, 600, L6
·LópezSanjuan, C., Tempel, E., Beníatez, N., Molino, A., Viironen, K., DíazGarcía, L. A., FernándezSoto, A., Santos, W. A., Varela, J., Cenarro, A. J., Moles, M., ArnalteMur, P., Ascaso, B., et al. 2017, The ALHAMBRA survey: Bband luminosity function of quiescent and starforming galaxies by PDF analysis, A&A, 599, A62
·Poudel, A., Heinämäki, P., Tempel, E., Einasto, M., Lietzen, H., & Nurmi, P. 2017, The effect of cosmic web filaments on the properties of groups and their central galaxies, A&A, 597, A86
The electronpositron pairs in physics, astrophysics and cosmology (Page 539)
This problem "The electronpositron pairs in physics and astrophysics: from heavy nuclei to black holes" has been the subject of a physics reports of more than 500 references, which is inserted on page 773, by Ruffini, Vereshchagin and Xue. There, all the different aspects of the field has been reviewed: The fundamental contributions to the electronpositron pair creation and annihilation and the concept of critical electric field; Nonlinear electrodynamics and rate of pair creation; Pair production and annihilation in QED; Semiclassical description of pair production in a general electric field; Phenomenology of electronpositron pair creation and annihilation; The extraction of blackholic energy from a black hole by vacuum polarization processes. Due to the interaction of physics and astrophysics we are witnessing in these years a splendid synthesis of theoretical, experimental and observational results originating from three fundamental physical processes. They were originally proposed by Dirac, by Breit and Wheeler and by Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger. For almost seventy years they have all three been followed by a continued effort of experimental verification on Earthbased experiments. The Dirac process, e^{+}e^{}→2γ, has been by far the most successful. The BreitWheeler process, 2γ→e^{+}e^{}, although conceptually simple, being the inverse process of the Dirac one, has been by far one of the most difficult to be verified experimentally.
The e^{+}e^{} pairs generated by the vacuum polarization process around a gravitationally collapsing charged core are entangled in the electromagnetic field (R. Ruffini, L. Vitagliano, S.S. Xue, Phys. Lett. B 573, (2003) 33), and thermalize in an electron–positron–photon plasma on a time scale ~ 10^{4} τ_{C} (R. Ruffini, L. Vitagliano, S.S. Xue, Phys. Lett. B 559, (2003) 12). As soon as the thermalization has occurred, the hydrodynamic expansion of this electrically neutral plasma starts (R. Ruffini, J. Salmonson, J. Wilson, S.S. Xue, A&A Vol. 335 (1999) 334; Vol. 359 (2000) 855). While the temporal evolution of the e^{+}e^{} gravitationally collapsing core moves inwards, giving rise to a further amplified supercritical field, which in turn generates a larger amount of e^{+}e^{} pairs leading to a yet higher temperature in the newly formed e^{+}e^{}γ plasma. As a consequence, an enormous amount of pairs is left behind the collapsing core and a Dyadosphere (G. Preparata, R. Ruffini, S.S. Xue, A&A Vol. 338 (1998) L87) is formed. see also B. Han, R. Ruffini, S.S. Xue, Physics Review D86, 084004 (2012), R. Ruffini, and SS. Xue, Physics Letters A377 (2013) 2450.
The Schwinger pairproduction and nonlinear QED effects in a curved space time are also studied. Taking into account the EulerHeisenberg effective Lagrangian of oneloop nonperturbative QED contributions, we formulate the EinsteinEulerHeisenberg theory and study the solutions of nonrotating black holes with electric and magnetic charges in spherical geometry (R. Ruffini, Y.B. Wu and S.S. Xue, Physics Review D88, 085004 (2013)). In addition, the Schwinger pairproduction and back reaction are recently studied in de Sitter space time in order to understand their roles in early Universe, some results are published (C. Stahl, E. Strobel, and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 93, 025004 (2016); C. Stahl and S.S. Xue, Phys. Lett B 760, 288292 (2016); E. Bavarsad, C. Stahl and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 94, 104011 (2016)).
An interesting aspect of effective field theories in the strongfield or strong coupling limit has recently been emphasized. We study that pairproduction in superposition of static and plane wave fields, and in the strong fields expansion, the leading order behavior of the EulerHeisenberg effective Lagrangian is logarithmic, and can be formulated as a power law (H. Kleinert, E. Strobel and SS. Xue, Phys. Rev. D88, 025049 (2013), Annals of Physics Vol. 333 (2013) 104). We have also investigated the fundamental processes relevant to the issues of intense laser physics, pairproduction (E. Strobel and SS. Xue, Nucl. Phys B 886, (2014) 1153); two laser beams colliding with a highenergy photon (Y.B. Wu and SS. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 90, 013009 (2014)), as well as pairoscillation leading to electromagnetic and gravitational radiation (W.B. Han and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 024008). We study the photon circularpolarization produced by twolaser beams collision (R. Mohammadi, I. Motie, and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062111 (2014)), and by laser and neutrino beams collisions (Phys. Lett. B 731 (2014) 272; Phys. Rev. D 90, 091301(R) (2014)).
In order to account for future observations of GRBs photon polarizations, the possible microscopic origins and preliminary values of GRBs photon polarizations are theoretically calculated (S. Batebi, R. Mohammadi, R. Ruffini, S. Tizchang, and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 94, 065033 (2016)). Similarly, by considering possible microscopic interactions and processes, we study the polarization of CMB in cosmology, compared with recent observations (R. Mohammadi, J. Khodagholizadeh, M. Sadegh, and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D93, 125029 (2016)). All these fundamental processes of microscopic and macroscopic physics are relevant to highenergy phenomena in relativistic astrophysics, black hole physics and laser physics, as early Universe and modern Cosmology.
The Diadotorus
Papers published in 2017 include:
·S.S. Xue, "An effective strongcoupling theory in UVdomain", JHEP 05, 146 (2017).
·S. Shakeri, S. Z. Kalantari, and S.S. Xue, "Polarization of a probe laser beam due to nonlinear QED effects", Physical Review A 95, 012108 (2017).
·S. Shakeri, M. Haghighat, and S.S. Xue, "Nonlinear QED effects in Xray emission of pulsars", JCAP 10, 014 (2017).
·R. Moradi, C. Stahl, J. Firouzjaee, S.S. Xue, "Charged cosmological black hole", Phys. Rev. D 96, 104007 (2017).
From nuclei to compact stars (Page 1117)
The study of compact objects such as white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes requires the interplay between nuclear and atomic physics together with relativistic field theories, e.g., general relativity, quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, as well as particle physics. In addition to the theoretical physics aspects, the study of astrophysical scenarios characterized by the presence of a compact object has also started to be focus of extensive research within our group. The research which has been done and is currently being developed within our group can be divided into the following topics: nuclear and atomic astrophysics, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) physics and astrophysics including radiation mechanisms, exact solutions of the Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell equations applied to astrophysical systems and critical fields and nonlinear electrodynamics effects in astrophysics.
Also this year we have made progress in all the above fields of research. It is worth to mention that in the recent years it has been established a strong collaboration between the research on the observational and theoretical aspects of GRBs and the one on the physics and astrophysics aspects of white dwarfs and neutron stars. In particular, this collaboration has focused on the problem of establishing the possible progenitors of both short and long GRBs, together with the further development of the model for the explanation of the experimental data of GRBs from the radio all the way to the gammarays.
In this line I would like to recall the work by Becerra et al. "On the induced gravitational collapse scenario of gammaray bursts associated with supernovae", ApJ 833, 107 (2016), in which we have, following our induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm of long GRBs, presented numerical simulations of the explosion of a carbon–oxygen core in a binary system with a neutronstar companion. In this work we have presented simulations that follow the hypercritical accretion process triggered onto the neutron star by the supernova explosion, the associated copious neutrino emission near the NS accreting surface, as well as all relevant hydrodynamic aspects within the accretion flow including the trapping of photons. We have shown that indeed the NS can reach the critical mass and collapse to a black hole producing a GRB. Interesting new lines of research has been opened thanks to this work: we have shown that the presence of the neutron star companion near the carbonoxygen core causes strong asymmetries in the supernova ejecta and that the GRB emission can also interact with the supernova ejecta. Both phenomena cause specific observable signatures which we are currently examining and probing in GRB data.
We have also gone further in probing neutron star binaries as progenitors of short GRBs. Especial mention has to be given in this line to the work of R. Ruffini et al., "GRB 090510: a genuine shortGRB from a binary neutron star coalescing into a KerrNewman black hole", ApJ 831, 178 (2016). We are starting a new era in which, from GRB data, we can extract information on the neutron star parameters leading to black hole formation after the binary coalescence. This kind of research is also of paramount importance to put constraints on the matter content and equation of state at supranuclear densities in neutron stars.
It is also important to mention that we are performing new research on the gravitational wave emission from compact object binaries leading to GRBs, which not only is important by itself but it is relevant to establish the capabilities of current second generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advanded LIGO to detect the gravitational waves associated with GRB events. We have to mention here the work by R. Ruffini et al., "On the classification of GRBs and their occurrence rates", ApJ 832, 136 (2016), in which we have established a novel classification of short and long GRBs, their binary progenitors, as well as their occurence rate, being the latter necessary to predict a detection rate of the gravitational wave emission from GRBs.
We have also made progress in the understanding of soft gamma ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous Xray pulsars (AXPs). The most used model for the explanation of SGRs/AXPs is based on "magnetars", ultramagnetized neutron stars. Since there is so far no experimental evidence of such extreme, B > 100 TG, surface magnetic fields in neutron stars, we have focus our effort in analyzing the data of SGRs and AXPs and check whether these objects could be explained by canonical, well tested and experimentally confirmed stars. This was the main idea of a pioneering work of Malheiro, Rueda and Ruffini, "SoftGammaRay Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous XRay Pulsars (AXPs) as rotation powered white dwarfs", PASJ 64, 56 (2012). It was there shown that, indeed, massive (masses of 1 solar mass), fast rotating (rotation periods 110 second), highly magnetized (magnetic fields of 1 giga gauss) white dwarfs could explain the observational properties of SGRs/AXPs. In addition, it was there shown that some sources (at the time four) could actually be ordinary, rotationpowered neutron stars. That work opened a new field of research which led in the recent years to several ICRANet publications on the properties of such magnetized white dwarfs, including their radiation emission which has been compared and contrasted with observations. It is particularly important to recall that this area of research has been very active and prolific thanks to an intense collaboration with Brazilian colleagues, including professors and postdoc former students at ICRANet. In the 2016 we have made two important contributions within this collaboration. First, in the work by D. L. Cáceres, et al., "Thermal Xray emission from massive, fast rotating, highly magnetized white dwarfs", MNRAS 465, 4434 (2016), it has been shown that such white dwarfs can behave in a similar way as the wellknown pulsars, with a specific emission in the Xrays which can explain the soft Xray emission observed in SGRs and AXPs. Second, in the work by J. G. Coelho et al., "On the nature of some SGRs and AXPs as rotationpowered neutron stars", to appear in A&A; arXiv:1612.01875, it has been shown that up to 11 out of the total 23 SGRs/AXPs known to date, could be described as rotationpowered neutron stars.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Gómez, L. Gabriel; Rueda, J. A., Dark matter dynamical friction versus gravitational wave emission in the evolution of compactstar binaries, Physical Review D 96, 063001, 2017.
·Cipolletta, Federico; Cherubini, Christian; Filippi, Simonetta; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo, Equilibrium Configurations of Classical Polytropic Stars with a MultiParametric Differential Rotation Law: A Numerical Analysis, Communications in Computational Physics 22, 863, 2017
·Cipolletta, F.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R., Last stable orbit around rapidly rotating neutron stars, Physical Review D 96, 024046, 2017.
·Coelho, Jaziel G.; Cáceres, D. L.; de Lima, R. C. R.; Malheiro, M.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R., The rotationpowered nature of some soft gammaray repeaters and anomalous Xray pulsars, A&A 599, A87, 2017.
·Cáceres, D. L.; de Carvalho, S. M.; Coelho, J. G.; de Lima, R. C. R.; Rueda, J. A., Thermal Xray emission from massive, fast rotating, highly magnetized white dwarfs, MNRAS 465, 4434, 2017.
·Rueda, Jorge A.; Aimuratov, Y.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Becerra, L.; Bianco, C. L.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Karlica, M.; Kovacevic, M.; Fuksman, J. D. Melon; Moradi, R.; Muccino, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Primorac, D.; Ruffini, R.; Sahakyan, N.; Shakeri, S.; Wang, Y., The binary systems associated with short and long gammaray bursts and their detectability, IJMPD 26, 1730016, 2017.
Supernovae (Page 1245)
GRBs have broaden the existing problematic of the study of Supernovae. In some models, e.g. the "collapsar" one, all GRBs are assumed to originate from supernovae. Within our approach, we assume that corecollapse supernovae can only lead to neutron stars, and we also assume that GRBs are exclusively generated in the collapse to a black hole. Within this framework, supernovae and GRBs do necessarily originate in a binary system composed by an evolved main sequence star and a neutron star. The concept of induced gravitational collapse leads to the temporal coincidence between the transition from the neutron star to the black hole and the concurrent transition of the late evolved star into a supernova. This very wide topic has been promoted by the collaboration with Prof. Massimo Della Valle, who is an Adjunct Professor at ICRANet and who is currently CoPI of a VLT proposal "A spectroscopic study of the supernova/GRB connection". This kind of research is particularly important for trying to find a coincidence between electromagnetic radiation, highenergy particles, ultra highenergy cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational radiation, possible observable for existing or future detectors. A short summary of the internationally wellknown activities of Prof. Della Valle is given in the report, which contains the many publications in international journals. Prof. Della Valle is also very actively following one graduate student of the IRAP PhD program. A new stimulus has come from the recent understanding of the IGC paradigm, which allows a completely new understanding of the relation between the supernovae and the GRBs.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Izzo, L. et al., 2017, The MUSE view of the host galaxy of GRB 100316D, MNRAS, 472, 4480
·Martone et al., 2017, False outliers of the Ep,i  Eiso correlation?, A&A, 608, 52
·Smartt, S. et al., 2017, A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitationalwave source, Nature, 551, 75
·Gutierrez, C., et al., 2017, Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. I. Observations, Sample Characterization, and Spectral Line Evolution, ApJ, 850, 89
·Terreran, L., et al., 2017, A Hydrogenrich supernovae beyond the neutrinodriven corecollapse paradigm, NatAs, 1, 713
·Barbarino et al., 2017, LSQ14efd: observations of the cooling of a shock breakout event in a type Ic Supernova, MNRAS, 471, 2463
·Abbott, B., et al., 2017, Multimessenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger, ApJ, 848, L12
·Orio, M., et al., 2017, CXO J004318.8+412016, a steady supersoft Xray source in M 31, MNRAS, 470, 2212
·Inserra, C., et al., 2017, Complexity in the light curves and spectra of slowevolving superluminous supernovae, MNRAS, 468, 4642
·Pian, E. . et al., 2017, Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the lowluminosity, broadlined Ic supernova iPTF15dld, MNRAS, 466, 1848
·Botticella et al., 2017, Supernova rates from the SUDARE VSTOmegacam search II. Rates in a galaxy sample, A&A, 598, 50
·Van Patten, M., And Della Valle, M., 2017, On extreme transient events from rotating black holes and their gravitational wave emission, MNRAS 464, 3219
Symmetries in General Relativity (Page 1257)
We have studied (Bini, Esposito, Geralico) cosmological models, involving nonideal fluids as sources of the gravitational field, with equation of state typical for fluids undergoing phase transitions as a possible mechanism to generate the content of dark matter in the present Universe.
We have continued our works on perturbations of black hole spacetimes (Bini, Damour, Geralico), with transcription of the associated results into the effectiveonebody model, i.e. the model which encompasses all other approximation techniques for the description of a twobody system. In particular, we have studied the backreaction due to particles moving on eccentric orbits in Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes. Moreover, we have started the inclusion of second order perturbation effects into the effectiveonebody model and considered gravitational selfforce effects (Bini, Carvalho, Geralico) on a scalar charge orbiting a ReissnerNordstrom spacetime.
We have continued our studies (Bini, Geralico) on drag and friction forces around black hole spacetimes, motivated by the necessity of a deeper understanding of effects like the well known PoyntingRobertson effect.
We have considered (Bini, Jantzen, Geralico) gyroscope precession effects along eccentric orbits (either bound or ellipticlike and unbound or hyperboliclike) around a Kerr spacetime.
Finally (Bini, Mashhoon) we have studied tidal forces around a Kerr black hole, with applications in gravitational gradiometry as well as some novel applications of nonlocal gravity to conformally flat spacetimes.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Bini D., Geralico A., Jantzen R.T., Gyroscope precession along general timelike geodesics in a Kerr black hole spacetime, Phys. Rev. D 95, 124022 (2017)
·Bini D., Geralico A., Ortolan A., Deviation and precession effects in the field of a weak gravitational wave Phys. Rev. D 95, 104044 (2017)
·Bini D., Chicone C., Mashhoon B., Relativistic Tidal Acceleration of Astrophysical Jets, Phys. Rev. D 95, 104029 (2017)
·Bini D., Geralico A., Hyperboliclike elastic scattering of spinning particles by a Schwarzschild black hole, Gen. Rel. Gravit. 49, 84 (2017)
·Kavanagh C., Bini D., Damour T., Hopper S., Ottewill A.C., Wardell B. Spinorbit precession along eccentric orbits for extreme mass ratio black hole binaries and its effectiveonebody transcription Phys. Rev. D 96064012 (2017)
·Bini D., Damour T., Gravitational scattering of two black holes at the fourth postNewtonian approximation, Phys. Rev. D, 96, 064021 (2017)
·Bini D., Geralico A., Jantzen R.T., Position determination and strong field parallax effects for photon emitters in the Schwarzschild spacetime, Gen. Rel. Gravit. 49, 84 (2017)
·Bini D., Geralico A., Vines J., Hyperbolic scattering of spinning particles by a Kerr black hole, Phys. Rev. D, 96, no. 8, 084044 (2017)
·Bini D., Chicone C., Mashhoon B., Anisotropic gravitational collapse and cosmic Jets, Phys. Rev. D 96, 084034 (2017).
·Bini D., Damour T., Gravitational spinorbit coupling in binary systems, postMinkowskian approximation and effective onebody theory, Phys. Rev. D, 96, 104038 (2017)
Self Gravitating Systems, Galactic Structures and Galactic Dynamics (Page 1379)
In 2017 the work on classical rotating selfgravitating configurations characterized by a multiparametric rotation law, written in collaboration with Dr F. Cipolletta, Dr J. Rueda and Prof. R. Ruffini, has been published. In the manuscript a detailed and elegant graphical analysis regarding the stability of the configurations (in particular against mass shedding) in the velocity field's parameters's space has been presented. In the general relativistic context, an article regarding the last stable orbit around neutron stars has been published. An interesting comparison between numerical simulations and analytical estimates in this case led the authors to find simple, accurate and especially analytical formulas of great interest for astrophysical applications. The study has been performed by using three different equations of state (EOS) based on nuclear relativistic mean field theory models but it is expected that the formulas found will be still valid also for other equations of state. Finally a "compare and contrast" procedure of these results with Kerr metric quantities has been performed too.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Cipolletta F., Cherubini C., Filippi S., Rueda J.A., Ruffini R. Commun. Comput. Phys. 22, (2017), 863888.
·Cipolletta F., Cherubini C., Filippi S., Rueda J.A., Ruffini R. Phys. Rev. D 96, (2017), 024046
Interdisciplinary Complex Systems (Page 1419)
These researches have been focused in fluidstructure problems in hemodynamics in arbitrary LagrangianEulerian formulation, a mathematically involved theory which describes systems of partial differential equations with free boundary conditions. Specifically the nonlinear equations' set which describes the fluid and the elastic wall within which the fluid flows have been numerically integrated and the previously introduced TDB risk indicator has been applied to this more involved case in order to perform a risk assessment. On the other hand, a numerical analysis of the same mathematical problem, but focused on the case of different biomedical prostheses applied to real patients' geometries has been carried out in order to perform a quantitative comparison of the mechanical behavior of the different scenarios, having in mind as ultimate target the best outcomes for patients' health.
Left: Electrical activity map of an electroelastic deformed patch of cardiactype tissue. Right: Turbulent flow structure (specifically the velocity amplitude) in a deformed vessel, obtained by numerical integration through finite elements of the incompressible NavierStokes equations.
Papers published in 2017 include:
·Cherubini C., Filippi S., Gizzi A., RuizBaier R., "A note on stressdriven anisotropic diffusion and its role in active deformable media", (2017) Journal of Theoretical Biology, 430, p.221228.
·Gizzi A. Loppini A., RuizBaier R., Ippolito A., Camassa A., La Camera A., Emmi E., Di Perna L., Garofalo V., Cherubini C., Filippi S., "Non linear diffusion and thermoelectric coupling in a twovariable model of cardiac action potential",(2017) Chaos, 27, 093919.
·Gizzi A. Loppini A., Cherry E.M., Cherubini C., Fenton F.H., Filippi S., "Multiband decomposition analysis: application to cardiac alternans as a function of temperature", (2017) Physiological Masurement, 38, p.833847
·Gizzi A., Giannitelli S.M., Trombetta M., Cherubini C., Filippi S., De Ninno A., Businaro L., Gerardino A., and Rainer A. "Computationally Informed Design of a Multiaxial Actuated Microfluidic Chip Device", (2017) Scientific Reports, 7, 5489.
Acknowledgements
I like to express, also on behalf of all Members of ICRANet, our gratitude to the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and to the Ministers of Economy and Finances, of Italy, Armenia, including the State Committee of Science of Armenia, and Brazil for their support.
I also express the gratitude to the Vatican Secretary of State, to the Presidents of the Universities of Tucson and Stanford as well as to the President of ICRA for their support to the ICRANet activities.
Particular recognition goes to Italian Foreign Minister for having supported ongoing ICRANet activities in Belarus, Iran, and Kazakhstan which, coordinated with Armenia, are opening new opportunities of Research in Central Asia. Equally important the support by local organizations to the traditional activities in China (Mainland) and China (Taiwan) and in Korea. I like as well to recall the further extensions of activities within Columbia and Argentina whose Universities and Research organizations have generously contributed trough the financial support of students and postdocs to the further expansion of ICRANet activities. For all this a particular gratitude goes to Min. Fabrizio Nicoletti, to Cons. Enrico Padula and to Prof. Immacolata Pannone, of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation for their attention and constant support and advice.
A special recognition goes to the activities of the many Ambassadors and Consuls who have greatly helped in the intense series of activities carried out by ICRANet in Brazil, China, Colombia, Italy, Mexico.
I also express the plaudit for the support of ongoing activities at Villa Ratti to the President of Nice University Prof. Frédérique Vidal, and to the Vice President Prof. Stéphane Ngô Maï, as well as to the Director of the Observatoire de la Côte D’Azur Prof. Thierry Lanz. We are grateful to the Mayor of Pescara, Marco Alessandrini, to the Mayor of Nice Philippe Pradal, to the President of PACA, Christian Estrosi, to the Cons. Agnès Rampal of PACA, to the President of the National Academy of Science of Armenia, Prof. Radik Martirosyan, and to the Director of CBPF in Rio de Janeiro, Prof. Ronald Shellard, for their generous support in granting to ICRANet the logistics of the Centers in their respective townships.
Clearly, a special mention of satisfaction goes to all the Scientific Institutions and Research Centers which have signed with us a collaboration agreement which include Al Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan); ASI (Italian Space Agency, Italy), Belarusian Republican Foundation For Fundamental Research (Belarus), BSU (Belarusian State University, Belarus), CAPES (Brazilian Fed. Agency for Support and Evaluation of Grad. Education), CBPF (Brazil), State Government of Ceará (Brazil), CNR (National Research Council, Italy), FAPERJ (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), GARR (Italy), IASBS (Institute For Advanced Studies In Basic Sciences, Iran), ICTP (The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy), IFCE (Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, Brasil), IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China), IHES (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France), INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy), INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil), IPM (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Iran), ITA (Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil), Isfahan University of Technology (Iran), LeCosPa (Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taiwan), NASB (National Academy of Sciences, Belarus), NAS RA (National Academy of Science, Armenia), Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France), Pescara University "D'Annunzio" (Italy), SCSA (State Committee of Science of Armenia), Sharif University of Technology (Iran), Shiraz University (Iran), UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México), UDEA (Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia), UDESC (Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil), UERJ (Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil), UFF (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil), UFPB (Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil), UFPE (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil), UFRGS (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), UFSC (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil), UIS (Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico), UnB (Universidade de Brasília, Brazil), UNICAMP (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil), UNIFE (University of Ferrara, Italy), UNIFEI (Universidade Federal de Itajubà, Brazil), University of Rome "Sapienza" (Italy), University of Belgrade (Serbia), University of Novi Sad (Serbia), University of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina), UNS (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina), Wigner Research Center (Hungary).
ICRANet, as sponsor of the IRAPPhD program, expresses its gratitude to AEI – Albert Einstein Institute – Potsdam (Germany); Bremen University (Germany); Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (Germany); CBPF – Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (Brazil); Ferrara University (Italy); Indian centre for space physics (India); INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil); Institut Hautes Etudes Scientifiques – IHES (France); Inst. of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science – IHEP CAS, China; MaxPlanckInstitut für Radioastronomie – MPIfR (Germany); National Academy of Science (Armenia); Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France); Observatory of the Côte d'Azur (France); Rome University – "Sapienza" (Italy); Savoie University (France); Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (China); Stockholm University (Sweden); Tartu Observatory (Estonia) for their joint effort in creating and activating this first European Ph.D. program in Relativistic Astrophysics which has obtained the official recognition of the Erasmus Mundus program of the European Community. All these activities were achieved thanks to the dedicated work of Prof. Pascal Chardonnet.
Finally, thanks goes to the Physics Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza" for all the collaboration with ICRA in the teaching, in the electronic links and in the common research.
A special mention of gratitude, of course, goes to the Administrative, Secretarial and Technical staff of ICRANet and ICRA for their essential and efficient daily support and to all Faculty for their dedication to fostering, opening and teaching new scientific horizons in our knowledge of the Universe.