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February 6-10, 2017

On February 6 to 10 in Singapore, at Nanyang Executive Centre, Nanyang Technological University, there was the “Conference on Cosmology, Gravitational Waves and Particles” 

On February 2016 physicists announced the discovery of gravitational waves, which were predicted in 1916 by Albert Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. About 1.3 billion years ago, two giant black holes collided and formed one very big black hole. During this collision strong gravitational waves were emitted. They were discovered at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the United States. Experts from the detectors will present their results at the conference. Theoreticians will discuss the implications of the discovery. There will also be lectures on the expansion of the universe, on cosmology, on astrophysics and on particle physics. The Standard Theory of particle physics describes the electroweak and the strong interactions, but it is still unclear, how the gravitational interaction can be included. These and related problems have been discussed this year, including possible new discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN.

In this picture Prof. Ruffini with Prof. K. K. Phua


In this occasion Professor Ruffini has held a lecture on "Gamma Ray Bursts, from Supernovae to Hypernovae to Binary Drive Hypernovae" (click here for the presentation) and follows the abstract.

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs): from Supernovae (SNe), via Hypernovae (HNe) to Binary Driven Hypernovae (BDHNe)

Remo Ruffini, Y. Wang, C. L. Bianco, M. Muccino, G. B. Pisani, J. A. Rueda, Y. Aimuratov, U. Barres de Almeida, L. Becerra, C. Cherubini, S. Filippi, C. L. Fryer, M. Kovacevic, L. Li, R. Moradi, F. G. Oliveira, A. V. Penacchioni, D. Primorac, N. Sahakyan

SNe with their energy of 1048 erg, HNe with their energy of 1051 erg, BdHNe withe their energy of 1054 erg are all acting in GRB events, the most energetic explosions in the Universe. They are sources of the heaviest elements, of the cosmic rays, of the ionizing radiation essential to the advanced technologies, to the biological evolution and to the extrapolation of the fundamental interactions to the most extreme and yet unknown regimes on our planet. Following the neutron stars (NS) discovery in Pulsars, the development of the theoretical understanding of Neutron Stars, Black Holes and Cosmology, lead to the discovery by X-Ray satellites of the first Black Hole in our Galaxy. In 1974 the yet unpredicted discoveries of GRBs was announced. Soon after it was hypothesized that GRBs originated in an e+e- plasma following the formation of a Kerr Newman Black Hole with an upper limit of the energy 1055 erg. Along with the developments of X and Gamma ray telescopes in space as well as the largest telescopes  in the optical and X-ray from the ground as well as underground, GRB observations have materialized in possibly the largest and more complex scientific collaboration ever developed in Scence. The detailed structure of the light-curves, the spectra, the location of the sources ranging from z = 0 to z=10 have allowed to reach such enormous details that have guided a novel understanding of the nature of GRBs. We shortly recall the contributions of BATSE Telescope on board of CGRO Observatory, leading to the distinction of short and long GRBs and their homogeneous distribution in galactic coordinates as well as the identification of the Prompt radiation. The Fundamental contribution of Beppo SAX and the determination of the GRB cosmological distance and their energetics up to the aforementioned limit of 1055 erg, particularly important the discovery of the X-ray afterglow in addition to the Prompt emission. The many contributions of the SWIFT satellite most prominent among them the Noussek relation in the gap between the prompt radiation and the afterglow discovered by Beppo SAX. And finally the high energy GeV emission observed by the Fermi satellite. I will focus on some recent results on an intermediate structure in GRBs, namely the Flares at the beginning of the X-Ray light curves, which is weak- comparing to the energetic of prompt radiation and short with respect to the long-lasting radiation of the afterglow. Its understanding has been made possible by the analysis of 167 BdHNe. Such BdHNe have as progenitors a tight binary system composed of of a carbon-oxigen core (CO core) and a NS undergoing Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) to a Black Hole triggered by the CO core explosion as a SN. The comparison and contrast of these electromagnetic observations and the corresponding gravitational waves ones are going to be addressed here in general and in detail in the accompanying contribution presented by Rodriguez.



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